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DietDoctor3: Time-restricted eating: pancreas, liver, muscle, fat produce energy; keeps insulin low
presents episode 249:
Dr Satchin Panda
Dr Bret Scher

Asking people to fast or to count calories, it is very stressful…
-people don’t enjoy that
-but, eating within a 10 hour window is enjoyable
~that is why people stuck with it

Why does time-restricted eating work?
-we know what improves health: example Metformin
-mimics fasting
-acts on AMP kinase
-triggers fat oxidation & other things

AMP kinase
AMP activated protein kinase:
-an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis
-activates glucose and fatty acid oxidation when
cellular energy is low

When animals do time-restricted eating…
-pancreas get enough rest to prime the cells to:
~produce just enough insulin when eating
~does NOT produce excess insulin during fasting
~fasting insulin actually drops

When animals do time-restricted eating…
-liver, when we fast, produces some glucose to fuel brain..
-but in type 2 diabetes, this production,
which should only happen when fasting,
happens all the time

“as if circadian rhythm & glucose
production is non-functional”

-contributes to increased glucose

When mice do time-restricted eating…
-this process, called gluconeogensis,
shuts down during eating period

“for half the day, the liver is not
producing excess glucose”

-glucose levels remain normal

gluconeogensis: glucose is made by breaking down
protein in the muscle…
-if for half the day, muscle protein is not being broken down:
-muscle must be getting healthier

“in at least half of the mouse
experiments, muscle mass increases
under time-restricted eating”

-functional muscle mass!

We find the same in fat tissues…
-during time-restricted eating, there is enough energy deficit:
-fat tissue now breaks down fat needed when we fast
-then comes to liver, breaks down into ketone bodies for fuel

These processes are all interlinked…
-for fat breakdown to happen,
-excess cholesterol in liver must be broken down
-circadian clock in liver becomes stronger
-one other clock protein breaks down
cholesterol into bile acids
-some bile acids go to fat cells
-tells them liver needs fat to
create ketones

It is not one thing that happens during time-restricted eating…
-5 or 6 things that we know for now
-that list is continuing to grow