Overview of the weakness of the blood lipid hypothesis for cardiovascular disease.
2009 paper: 75% of patients
hospitalized for heart attack
DID NOT have high LDL…
If LDL does not cause
What is the alternative?
“Your risk of clotting is a key risk
factor in developing atherosclerosis
and dropping dead of heart attack”
Role of blood clots in causing
heart attacks is well known and
Fatty blockages in the artery
often exist without symptoms:
still room for blood flow
Complete occlusion, like at right,
can be caused by blood clot
On the right: the clot is filling the space
where blood once flowed
In wrong artery, this could be fatal
Less well known: These blood clots
CAUSED atherosclerotic plaques to
form in the first place!
“Atherosclerotic plaques are:
healed blood clots”
After a blood clot forms, it heals,
but does not completely disappear
Repeated episodes of thrombosis
[blood clots] leads to build up of plaque
“Can happen 4 times at one site”
Where do these crystals come from?
-are made of cholesterol
-released by LDL in foam cells
Foam cell formed when scavenger receptor on macrophage
-binds to damaged LDL particle and ingests it!
Foam cells store cholesterol, bound w/ fatty acids in droplets
“Foam cells don’t like to release this cholesterol”
Makes it hard for foam cell to contribute to crystals
“To make the crystals…
What provides the
ingredients for these
crystal shapes seen
RED BLOOD CELLS is the answer!
Their outer membrane contains most free cholesterol…
Red blood cells are abundant in blood clots!
Original Youtube: https://youtu.be/-xCr3mvFCHM
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