EVIDENCE showing that cancer mutations come from mitochondrial damage

Dr Thomas Seyfried, Boston College…
-concerning & depressing that we have made little progress
in cancer deaths
-what is responsible?

“It is a mitochondrial
metabolic disease”

Two important organelles (structures within cells):
-it’s mitochondrial
damage to oxidative
-that leads to
mutations in nucleus
-these arise as
epiphenomenon of
this damage

oxidative phosphorylation
-metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to
oxidize nutrients, thereby
releasing chemical energy to produce ATP
(adenosine triphosphate)

-a secondary phenomenon that results from and
accompanies another
-a symptom or complication arising during the course of
a malady

Bean-shaped organelle is the mitochondrion…
-squiggly matererial inside are cristae
-responsible for
energy generation
through oxidative

-folds of the mitochondrial inner membrane that
provide an increase in the surface area
-allow greater space for
~the electron transport chain
~and chemiosmosis
-which produce ATP in final steps of cellular respiration

This paper is foundation of “Cancer is a genetic disease”
-this dogmatic view is present in all biology, bio-chemistry,
and cell biology
text books
-has indoctrinated
several generations
of physicians and
“Cancer is caused by
somatic mutations”

Mutation in tumor suppressor genes that fail to…
-suppress division that is out of control &
-mutations in proto-
oncogenes that
stimulate cells to
divide out of control

Definition of cause of cancers: Cell division, out of control,
-driven by defects in suppressor genes and in

Normal cells suffer a series of random mutations, not sure
how many, and
-normal cell growth,
eventually enters into
malignant cell
-which might grow
out of control and
eventually spread
throughout the body

Mesenchymal malignant cell
-heterogenous group of neoplasms encompassing benign,
intermediate malignancy, and malignant entities
-sarcomas account for about 1% of human malignancies

-type of tumor that develops in connective tissue, such as bone,
cartilage, or muscle.
-can be benign or malignant

Personalized therapy or personalized medicine…
-she is looking for extra copies of a particular gene
-this would be very
important if these
mutations were
related to the origin
of the disease, but
-they are downstream
“Little if any relevance
to the nature of cancer”

To get this type of information, biopsy material is necessary…
-tissue from patients must be taken and examined
-the act of taking
biopsy material from
the patient requires
disturbing the
-leads to risk of
spreading the cancer

To get this type of information, biopsy material is necessary…
-you are getting information that may be irrelevant, and
putting the patient
at risk


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